An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, thesis , review, conference proceeding , or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpose.  When used, an abstract always appears at the beginning of a manuscript or typescript, acting as the point-of-entry for any given academic paper or patent application . Abstracting and indexing services for various academic disciplines are aimed at compiling a body of literature for that particular subject.
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